Séminaire d'application économique

EFASM002
Eric TOULEMONDE

Editorial Editorial

Contrat pédagogique

L'objectif principal de ce séminaire est de pousser les étudiants à appliquer le raisonnement économique à des questions particulières. Il s'agira pour les étudiants de comprendre comment l'analyse économique permet de répondre à des interrogations sociétales.

Les étudiants devront développer leur capacité à expliquer en termes simples mais rigoureux les raisonnements économiques utilisés.

Enfin, les étudiants sont amenés à améliorer leur connaissance passive de l'anglais en se familiarisant avec le jargon économique anglais.

1. Organisation

Cette année, le séminaire abordera des questions liées de près ou de loin au marché du travail. Il s'agira par exemple de répondre aux questions suivantes.

-1- Faut-il avancer l'âge de la pension pour augmenter l'emploi des jeunes? 

-2- Les immigrés prennent-ils l'emploi des travailleurs locaux? 

-3- Les emplois à durée déterminée: un marchepied vers un emploi à temps plein? 

-4- Les allocations de chômage ont elles un effet sur le niveau de chômage? 

-5- Le salaire minimum affecte-t-il l'emploi? 

-6- Les applications anonymes réduisent-elles les discriminations? 

-7- Faut-il des quotas de femmes dans les conseils d'administration? 

-8- Internet offre-il une méthode de recrutement efficace? 

-9- Faut-il promouvoir les emplois publics pour réduire la pauvreté dans les pays pauvres? 

-10- Faut-il adapter la générosité de l'assurance chômage aux cycles conjoncturels? 

 ….

Environ 170 questions de ce type sont disponibles et traitées sur http://wol.iza.org/articles. Sur ce site, des experts apportent leur savoir-faire pour fournir des informations pertinentes et succinctes sur des thématiques précises. Leur objectif est de promouvoir la formulation de bonnes politiques et de bonnes pratiques économiques. Le style est clair, accessible et succinct (moins de 10 pages non techniques).

Les étudiants choisissent 6 questions parmi les questions traitées sur le site. Pour chacune de ces questions, ils écrivent un article d'environ 2,5 pages (moins de 1500 mots) qui présente d'une façon claire et complète les tenants et aboutissants de la question pour un public généraliste. L'article doit prendre la forme d'un bon article de journal (par exemple une carte blanche dans Le Soir). Pour écrire ces articles, il n'est pas nécessaire (mais pas interdit) d'avoir recours à d'autres sources que celles proposées. Evitez de reproduire la structure de l'article de départ (qui se répète généralement).

Organisation pratique:

Le séminaire se découpe en deux parties.

Première partie

- Lors de la première rencontre, chaque étudiant choisit un article dans une liste restreinte de 15 articles (voir ci-dessous). Pour le lundi 3 octobre au plus tard, il m'envoie (par mail) la première version de son article. Je donne un feed-back avant le lundi 10 octobre. L'étudiant m'envoie (par mail) la version définitive de son article avant le mardi 18 octobre, 12:00.

- L'étudiant présente ses résultats devant les autres étudiants le vendredi 21 octobre (en 7 minutes, un powerpoint peut être utile). Chaque étudiant est tenu d'assister à ces présentations.

- Le vendredi 28 octobre, une brève interrogation écrite est organisée. Elle vise à s'assurer que chaque étudiant a bien compris les tenants et aboutissants des questions traitées par les autres étudiants. Ainsi, chaque étudiant devra expliquer en moins d'une page (en une demi page) les tenants et aboutissants d'une des questions qui aura été présentées le 21 octobre. (N.B. Dans la pratique, je choisirai deux questions traitées le 21 octobre et j'attribuerai une de ces questions à chaque étudiant en m'assurant que la question ne soit pas celle que l'étudiant aura présenté le 21 octobre.)

Deuxième partie

- Au plus tard le vendredi 16 décembre, les étudiants me remettent (par mail) les 5 autres articles qu'ils auront traités. Ces articles sont à choisir parmi les articles disponibles sur http://wol.iza.org/articles et non traités dans la première partie du séminaire. Un même article peut être choisi par plusieurs étudiants mais le travail doit rester individuel.

En bout de processus, chaque étudiant aura traité individuellement 6 questions et aura pris connaissance des tenants et aboutissants de 10 à 15 autres questions.

2. Evaluation

L´évaluation se fera sur la base des travaux écrits qui seront rendus, de la qualité de la présentation orale du 21 octobre et de la réponse à l'interrogation du 28 octobre. Les critères d´évaluation sont les suivants :

  • rigueur dans l´utilisation du raisonnement économique
  • qualité et clarté de la rédaction
  • qualité et clarté de la présentation orale
  • qualité du résumé fourni lors de l'interrogation
  • respect du calendrier

Concernant ce dernier point, pour des raisons d´équité et pour la bonne organisation du séminaire, il est impératif que le calendrier soit respecté. Des sanctions substantielles, en terme de cotation sont prévues en cas de remise tardive.

Notez que vous devez utiliser vos propres mots et votre propre structure de texte pour la rédaction. Evitez absolument de simplement traduire le texte et d'en couper certains passages; vous feriez preuve de votre incapacité à réellement assimiler une question de nature économique.

Notez que dans vos rapports, vous devez mettre des guillemets lorsque vous recopiez une phrase (même si celle-ci est traduite par rapport à l'article d'origine). Vous devez aussi identifier clairement cette source. A défaut, votre travail sera considéré comme un plagiat qui est sanctionné d'une note de 0/20. Vous êtes invités à lire le document qui définit le plagiat et explique les façons de ne pas tomber dans le piège du plagiat dans la rubrique "Documents et liens"

3. Attribution des thèmes pour la première partie

-1- The effect of early retirement schemes on youth employment by René Böheim attribué à Caroline Renouprez

Keeping older workers in the workforce longer not only doesn’t harm the employment of younger workers, but might actually help both

The fiscal sustainability of state pensions is a central concern of policymakers in nearly every advanced economy. Policymakers have attempted to ensure the sustainability of these programs in recent decades by raising retirement ages. However, there are concerns that keeping older workers in the workforce for longer might have negative consequences for younger workers. Since youth unemployment is a pressing problem throughout advanced and developing countries, it is important to consider the impact of these policies on the employment prospects of the young.

-2- Do migrants take the jobs of native workers? by Amelie F. Constant attribué à Jean-Yves Makuanga *

Migrants rarely take native workers’ jobs, and they boost employment effects in the long term

Neither public opinion nor evidence-based research supports the claim of some politicians and the media that immigrants take the jobs of native-born workers. Public opinion polls in six migrant-destination countries after the 2008–2009 recession show that most people believe that immigrants fill job vacancies and many believe that they create jobs and do not take jobs from native workers. This view is corroborated by evidence-based research showing that immigrants—of all skill levels—do not significantly affect native employment in the short term and boost employment in the long term.

-3- Fixed-term contracts by Werner Eichhorst attribué à Benoit Vermer

Are fixed-term contracts a stepping stone to a permanent job or a dead end?

Fixed-term contracts have become a major form of employment in Europe. Available evidence about whether temporary jobs are a stepping stone to a permanent employment or are a dead end is mixed. The usefulness of these jobs depends on the institutional and economic environment. Fixed-term contracts can be a pathway from unemployment to employment, but their potential as a stepping stone to permanent employment is undercut if there is a strong degree of segmentation in labor markets. If that is the case, the labor flexibility motive of employers ends up dominating the screening function in offering a fixed-term contract.

-4- Unemployment benefits and unemployment by Robert Moffitt attribué à Didier Paquay *

The challenge of unemployment benefits is to protect workers while minimizing undesirable side effects

All developed economies have unemployment benefit programs to protect workers against major income losses during spells of unemployment. By enabling unemployed workers to meet basic consumption needs, the programs protect workers from having to sell their assets or accept jobs below their qualifications. The programs also help stabilize the economy during recessions. If benefits are too generous, however, the programs can lengthen unemployment and raise the unemployment rate. The policy challenge is to protect workers while minimizing undesirable side effects.

-5- Employment effects of minimum wages by David Neumark attribué à Titon Tshiongo

When minimum wages are introduced or raised, are there fewer jobs? Global evidence says yes

The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in poor or low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. If minimum wages reduce employment of low-skill workers, then minimum wages are not a “free lunch” with which to help poor and low-income families, but instead pose a tradeoff of benefits for some versus costs for others. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

-6- Anonymous job applications and hiring discrimination by Ulf Rinne

Anonymous job applications can level the playing field in access to jobs but cannot prevent all forms of discrimination

The use of anonymous job applications to combat hiring discrimination is gaining attention and interest. Results from a number of field experiments in European countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden are considered here) shed light on their potential to reduce some of the discriminatory barriers to hiring for minority and other disadvantaged groups. But although this approach can achieve its primary aims, there are also some cautions to consider.

-7- Gender quotas on boards of directors by Nina Smith attribué à Paulo de Lara Campos

Little evidence that gender quotas for women on boards of directors improve firm performance

Arguments for increasing gender diversity on boards of directors range from ensuring equal opportunity to improving firm performance, but the empirical results are mixed and often negative. Current research does not justify gender quotas on grounds of economic efficiency. Furthermore, in most countries the number of women qualified to join boards of directors is limited, and it is not clear from the evidence that quotas lead to a larger pool of qualified female candidates in the medium and long term.

-8- The internet as a labor market matchmaker by Peter J. Kuhn attribué à Jean-Philippe Audier *

How effective are online methods of worker recruitment and job search?

Since the internet’s earliest days, firms and workers have used various online methods to advertise and find jobs. Until recently there has been little evidence that any internet-based tool has had a measurable effect on job search or recruitment outcomes. However, recent studies, and the growing use of social networking as a business tool, suggest workers and firms are at last developing ways to use the internet as an effective matchmaking tool.

-9- Public works programs in developing countries have the potential to reduce poverty by Laura Zimmermann attribué à Francesco Giannone

The success of public works programs in reducing poverty depends on their design and implementation—in practice, they do better as safety nets

Public works programs in developing countries can reduce poverty in the long term and help low-skilled workers cope with economic shocks in the short term. But success depends on a scheme’s design and implementation. Key design factors are: properly identifying the target population; selecting the right wage; and establishing efficient implementation institutions. In practice, rationing, corruption, mismanagement, and other implementation flaws often limit the effectiveness of public works programs.

-10- Tuning unemployment insurance to the business cycle by Torben M. Andersen attribué à Ambali Kabongo

Unemployment insurance generosity should be greater when unemployment is high—and vice versa

High unemployment and its social and economic consequences have lent urgency to the question of how to improve unemployment insurance in bad times without jeopardizing incentives to work or public finances in the medium term. A possible solution is a rule-based system that improves the generosity of unemployment insurance (replacement rate, benefit duration, eligibility conditions) when unemployment is high and reduces the generosity when it is low.

-11- The brain drain from developing countries by Frédéric Docquier attribué à Tarik Lizani

The brain drain produces many more losers than winners in developing countries

The proportion of foreign-born people in rich countries has tripled since 1960, and the emigration of high-skilled people from poor countries has accelerated. Many countries intensify their efforts to attract and retain foreign students, which increases the risk of brain drain in the sending countries. In poor countries, this transfer can change the skill structure of the labor force, cause labor shortages, and affect fiscal policy, but it can also generate remittances and other benefits from expatriates and returnees. Overall, it can be a boon or a curse for developing countries, depending on the country’s characteristics and policy objectives.

 -12- Can immigrants ever earn as much as native workers? by Kathryn H. Anderson

Immigrants initially earn less than natives; the wage gap falls over time, but for many immigrant groups it never closes

Immigrants contribute to the economic development of the host country, but they earn less at entry and it takes many years for them to achieve parity of income. For some immigrant groups, the wage gap never closes. There is a wide variation across countries in the entry wage gap and the speed of wage assimilation over time. Wage assimilation is affected by year of entry, immigrant skill, ethnicity, and gender. Policies that facilitate assimilation of immigrant workers provide support for education, language, and employment. Such policies can also reduce barriers to entry, encourage naturalization, and target selection of immigrants.

 -13- Setting policy on asylum: Has the EU got it right? by Tim Hatton

Harmonizing asylum policies, a noble goal, does not produce the best outcomes for refugees or host country populations

Policy toward asylum-seekers has been controversial. Since the late 1990s, the EU has been developing a Common European Asylum System, but without clearly identifying the basis for cooperation. Providing a safe haven for refugees can be seen as a public good and this provides the rationale for policy coordination between governments. But where the volume of applications differs widely across countries, policy harmonization is not sufficient. Burden-sharing measures are needed as well, in order to achieve an optimal distribution of refugees across member states. Such policies are economically desirable and are more politically feasible than is sometimes believed.

 -14- Can hiring subsidies benefit the unemployed? by Alessio J. G. Brown attribué à Corine Kouakam

Hiring subsidies can be a very cost-effective way of helping the unemployed, but only when they are carefully targeted

Long-term unemployment can lead to skill attrition and have detrimental effects on future employment prospects, particularly following periods of economic crises when employment growth is slow and cannot accommodate high levels of unemployment. Addressing this problem requires the use of active labor market policies targeted at the unemployed. In this context, hiring subsidies can provide temporary incentives for firms to hire unemployed workers and, when sensibly targeted, are a very cost-effective and efficient means of reducing unemployment, during both periods of economic stability and recovery.

 -15-Does it pay to be a public-sector employee? by Fabien Postel-Vinay attribué à Isabelle Haubert

Contrary to common belief, the long-term public-private pay gap is negligible in many countries

Direct wage comparisons show that public-sector 
employees earn around 15% more than private-sector employees. But should these differences be interpreted as a “public-sector premium”? Two points need to be considered. First, the public and private sectors differ in the jobs they offer and the type of workers they employ, which explains a large share of the wage gap. Second, public- and private-sector careers also differ in other important dimensions, such as job stability and income progression, which are relevant to individual career choices. So any comparison of the two sectors should take these points into account.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Gestionnaire(s) de EFASM002 : Eric TOULEMONDE
Administrateur de WebCampus : WebCampus
Tél : +32 81 72 50 70 ou +32 81 72 50 55
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